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    Novel propulsion and alternative fuels for aviation towards 2050 : Promising options and steps to take (TRANSCEND Deliverable D3.2)
    (Netherlands Aerospace Centre NLR, 2022) Kos, J. ; Peerlings, B. ; Lim, M.N.A. ; Lammen, W.F. ; Posada Duque, J.A. ; Sman, E.S. van der
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    Prediction of thermo-mechanic effects through numerical simulation of induction heating of thermoplastic composites
    (Netherlands Aerospace Centre NLR, 2021) Wit, A.J. de ; Hoorn, N. van ; Nahuis, B.R. ; Vankan, W.J.
    Several heating mechanisms take place in the induction heating of thermoplastic CFRP. The extent in which each mechanism contributes to the heating process, depends on the material that is heated and the process parameters that are applied. In this work we focus on modelling and simulation of the induction heating process of unidirectional (UD) CFRP material. In particular the influence of material properties and ply layup on the generation and distribution of eddy currents inside the composite laminate is investigated. A measurement technique to determine the electrical conductivity properties is presented. The experimentally obtained values are in agreement with literature values. A finite element simulation of a UD CFRP material shows the positive effect of modelling electromagnetic ply properties with interface modelling with respect to the calculated surface temperature.
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    Advancing Cross-Organizational Collaboration in Aircraft Development
    (Netherlands Aerospace Centre NLR, 2022) Baalbergen, E.H. ; Vankan, W.J. ; Boggero, L. ; Bussemaker, J.H. ; Lefèbvre, T. ; Beijer, B. ; Bruggeman, A.M.R.M. ; Mandorino, M.
    Efficient collaboration between engineers is a key enabler for successful development of any modern aircraft and its numerous systems and components. Because of their highly complex and integrated nature, effective collaboration demands well-organized, multi-disciplinary, multi-engineer, and cross-organizational development processes. Such processes depend on automated, data-driven, computer-assisted tools and methodologies. Effective collaboration may seem as simple as working together, adopting standards and tools, and freely sharing data, information, and knowledge. However, in the development of complex systems such as aircraft, collaboration is, alas, not that straightforward. For example, aircraft engineers across disciplines and organizations commonly face challenges such as security firewalls, data and tool heterogeneity, and intellectual property protection issues. In this technical paper we review the collaboration challenges. Next, we describe how collaboration supporting technologies developed and integrated in the EU-funded research project AGILE 4.0 provide engineering teams with solutions to face such challenges. The technologies comprise solutions for shared access to design information, for collaborative systems engineering, for creating and using collaborative cross-organization multi-disciplinary analysis and optimization workflows that facilitate integrated use of distributed tools and data thereby complying with applicable security constraints, and for managing the creation and use of surrogate models. We finally detail the application of and experiences with these collaboration supporting technologies.
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    Full process chain simulation of the (wire-based) laser metal deposition process towards fatigue life prediction
    (Netherlands Aerospace Centre NLR, 2021) Koenis, T.P.A. ; Brink, W.M. van den ; Bosman, M.
    As virtual manufacturing in additive manufacturing (AM) becomes more mature, the benefits of using this technology increases. Virtual manufacturing simulations often capture only one step in the AM process chain decoupled from the subsequent steps. However, all steps in the process chain influence the final product in their own way. Therefore, this study focusses on the development of a virtual manufacturing framework to perform sequential process simulations of the complete process chain for AM parts. This framework can ultimately be used to obtain insights on the effect of additional processes or process variations on the final product. In this study, the framework is used to obtain insights on the effect of residual stress due to the laser metal deposition (LMD) process on the fatigue life of the final part. To this end, a calibration and validation of a part-scale LMD process simulation is performed to obtain deformations and residual stresses. This is followed by a heat treatment simulation to determine the effect of post heat treatment on the deformation and residual stresses of the final part. As the numerical simulations of the post-processes are purely based on literature and not validated experimentally, the simulations can only be used to qualitatively estimate the residual stresses after post-processing. By combining the residual stress field with externally applied loads, the effect of different process steps on the fatigue life is investigated. To demonstrate this framework, the full virtual process chain of a fictional use case for a simple aerospace bracket is analyzed to observe qualitatively the influence of individual process steps on the fatigue life of the final component.
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    Applying digital twin technology in thermoplastic composites production : Supporting process monitoring, optimization and automation for real-time efficiency and smart quality control
    (Netherlands Aerospace Centre NLR, 2020) Baalbergen, E.H. ; Marchi, J.A. de ; Offringa, A. ; Hengeveld, S. ; Troost, B. ; He, K. ; Koppert, R.J. ; Eijnde, W.A.J. van den
    Many theoretical and practical challenges must be overcome in thermoplastic composites production. But what if digital technology could provide us the necessary insights to solve these challenges? An innovative out-of autoclave production process is currently being developed in the Dutch regionally funded Luxovius project. The process involves integration of several production steps into a consolidated out-of-autoclave production process for assembled thermoplastic parts. By applying digital twin technology to this new production process, production waste, material usage, energy consumption and costs can be reduced during all phases from technology development to technology utilization.